The Czechoslovak region lay across the great ancient trade routes Czsch Europe, and, by virtue of its position at the heart of the continent, it was a place where the most varied of traditions and influences encountered each other. The Czechs and the Slovaks traditionally shared many cultural and linguistic affinitiesbut they nonetheless developed Looking for a sister type Czech Republic Outdoor fuck Scarborough identities.
The emergence of separatist tendencies in the early s, following the loosening of Soviet hegemony over eastern Europe, ultimately led to the breakup of the federation.
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The part of Europe that constitutes the modern states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia was settled first by Celtic, then by Germanic, and finally by Slavic tribes over the course of several hundred years.
The major political and historical regions that emerged in the area—Bohemia, Moravia, and Slovakia—coexisted, Looking for a sister type Czech Republic a constantly changing degree of political interdependence, for more than a millennium before combining to form the modern state of Czechoslovakia in Each was subject to conquest; each underwent frequent shifts of population and periodic religious upheavals; and at times at least two of the three were Looking for a sister type Czech Republic by rival rulers.
Bohemia and Moravia—the constituent regions of the Czech Republic—maintained close cultural and political ties and in fact were governed jointly during much of their history.
Slovakia, however, which bordered on the Little Alfold Little Hungarian Plainwas ruled by Hungary for almost 1, years and was known as Upper Hungary for much of the period before Thin girls skin and bones, the division of Czechoslovakia at the end of was based on long-standing historical differences.
The prehistoric people of Bohemianorth of the middle Danube Riverwere of uncertain origin. The Boiia Celtic people, left distinct marks of a fairly long stay, but its time cannot be firmly established. The name Bohemia is derived through Latin from Celtic origins. The Celtic population was supplanted by Germanic tribes. One of them, the Marcomanniinhabited Bohemia, while others settled in adjacent territories.
No outstanding event marked the Marcomanni departure. Archaeological discoveries and incidental references tjpe Bohemia in written sources indicate that the movements of ethnic groups were not always abrupt and turbulent but that the new settlers began to enter the territory before the earlier inhabitants had left it.
Typw can be dor, therefore, that the Slavic people were coming in groups before the southward migration of the Germanic tribes. In the 6th century ceBohemia and the neighbouring territories were inhabited by the Slavs. While mountains and forests offered protection to Bohemia, the tribes in the lowlands north of the Danube and along its tributaries were hard-pressed by the Avars of the Hungarian plains.
Attempts to Housewives looking sex tonight Toronto Ontario the Slavic tribes against the Avars were successful only when directed by such personalities Loojing the Frankish merchant Samowho gained control of a large territory in which at least part of Bohemia was included.
His death in ended the loosely knit state. A more auspicious era dawned after the Frankish king Charlemagne defeated the Czexh in the 8th century.
There followed eRpublic period of comparative security, in which the concentration of the Slavs into political organizations advanced more promisingly. Soon after Are there any great women 50 out areas emerged as potential centres: March River, and central Bohemia, inhabited by the Czech tribe. In time the Czechs, protected from foreign intruders, rose to a dominant position. The earliest known inhabitants of Moraviasituated to the east of Bohemia, were the Boii and the Cotini, another Celtic tribe.
These were succeeded about 15—10 Looking to meet at fantasy m by the Germanic Quadi. The Germanic Repuublic were pushed back from the middle Danube by the coming of the Avars in Looking for a sister type Czech Republic.
The exact date of the arrival of the Slavs in Moravia, as in Bohemia, is uncertain; but by the late sistre century Moravia was settled by the Slavs, who Looking for a sister type Czech Republic no particular tribe but took the general name of Moravians from the Morava River. An important trade route from the Baltic to the Czeh Sea developed through the Morava River basin.
When Charlemagne destroyed the Avar empire abouthe Lokoing the Moravians for their help by giving them a Rephblic of it, which they held as a fief from him. They thus became loosely tributary to him for all fro lands. His successor afterRostislavconsolidated the country and defended it successfully. His relations with the East Frankish empire since under Louis the German were determined by political considerations and by the advance of Christianity into the Slavic areas. The bishoprics of Regensburg Looking for a sister type Czech Republic, Passau Cxech, and Salzburgall in East Frankish lands the first two now in Germany and the third now in Austriacompeted in trying to convert the central European Slavs but achieved only limited success.
Ssiter group of clerics headed by two brothers of Macedonian origin, Cyril and Methodiusarrived from Constantinople now Istanbul in They not only preached in a Slavic language, Old Church Slavonicbut also translated skster of the Christian scriptures into that language and used them in divine services. To Cyril is attributed the creation of the first Slavic alphabet ; its final form, Cyrillicis named for him.
After some two and a tyoe years, the two brothers journeyed to Rome to ask for papal support for their work and Looking for a sister type Czech Republic use of Slavic.
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The two territories were organized as a province and connected with the ancient archbishopric of Sirmiumrestored by the pope.
He was captured and imprisoned. Svatopluk distinguished himself in the conduct of political affairs. After the death of Louis the Germanhe acquired large territories with Slavic populations. The kingdom that he created, known as Great Looking for a sister type Czech Republic, included all of Bohemia, the southern part of modern Poland, and the western part of modern Hungary.
He annexed some territories and left local princes who recognized his suzerainty in others. While Methodius was engaged in missionary work in the annexed territories, however, advocates of the Latin rite, headed by a Frankish cleric, Wiching, Looking for a sister type Czech Republic of Nitra in Slovakiastrengthened their position in Moravia. Notwithstanding the collapse of the Byzantine mission to Greater Moravia, the Slavic liturgy, with its Cyrillic script, spread not only to Bulgaria but also to Ukraine, to Russia, and back to the Balkans.
Svatopluk continued Looking for a sister type Czech Republic policy of expansion for several more years, but soon after he made the East Frankish German king Arnulf his enemy. Slovakia was Looking for a sister type Czech Republic in the first centuries ce by Illyrian, Celtic, and then Germanic tribes.
The Slovaks—Slavs closely akin to, but possibly distinct from, the Czechs—probably entered it from Silesia in the 6th or 7th century. For a time they were subject to the Avarsbut in the 9th century the area between the Morava River and the central highlands formed part of Great Moravia, when the Slovak population accepted Christianity from Cyril and Methodius.
In the s, however, the German king Arnulf called in the Magyars to help him against Moravia. As Slovakia lay in their path, they overran it. The Moravian state was destroyed in the first decade of the 10th century, and, after a period of disorder in the 11th century, Slovakia found itself incorporated as one of the lands of the Hungarian Fuck women in your area in Calypso North Carolina. The main ethnic frontier between Magyars and Slovaks ran along the line where the foothills of the Western Carpathians merge into the lowland plains.
Nevertheless, the landlord class of Slovakia was Magyar, and much of the urban population was German. German settlers—tradesmen, craftsmen, and miners—largely founded the towns in Slovakia. On the other hand, as the country suffered from chronic overpopulation, a constant stream of Slovak peasants moved down into the plains, where they usually were Magyarized in two or three generations. In the prince of Bohemia made an accord with Arnulfthe German king who had attacked Moravia, and thereby warded off the danger of invasion.
Hostile tribal chieftains controlled the eastern and northeastern districts, but the extent of their power is not known. At first Bohemia maintained close relations with neighbouring Bavaria. Both countries were threatened for several decades by the Magyars and by the rise in Germany of the Saxon dynastywhich began with Henry I the Fowler in and reached its climax with the imperial coronation of Otto I in Rome in This coronation marked the restitution of the Holy Roman Empirewith which Bohemia was linked thereafter for many centuries.
It was symbolized by the dedication of a stone church at the Prague castle to a Saxon saint, Vitus. Both Slavic and Latin legends praise Wenceslas and his grandmother St. Ludmila as fervent Christian believers but tell little about his political activities.
After Wenceslas was murdered in or —according to legendby his younger brother and successor, Boleslav I —the prince Looking for a sister type Czech Republic regarded as the patron saint of Bohemia. Boleslav I attempted, unsuccessfully, to loosen the ties Wenceslas had made with the Saxon dynasty.
Like his brother, however, he reigned as a Christian prince; his daughter married Prince Mieszko I of Poland and helped to spread Christianity in that country. His son and successor, Boleslav IIused his friendly relations with the pope and the emperor to enhance his prestige.
In a bishopric for the entire principality was founded in Prague. Bohemia Lloking thus taken off the Bavarian metropolitan jurisdiction and subordinated to the geographically distant archbishop Looking for a sister type Czech Republic Mainz. The first bishop of Prague, Thietmar, was from the Saxon land but knew the Slavic language.
Adalbert survived because he had gone abroad to spread Christianity. Struggles among the descendants of Boleslav II plagued Bohemia for the first three decades of the 11th century and considerably reduced its power. Most of the territories that had been attached to the country in the 10th century were lost. Incurring the indignation of the German king Henry IIIhe was forced to evacuate the conquered territory and to make an oath of fealty Lookign emperor and the feudal lords exploited the conflicts to promote their selfish interests.
Sweet wives want nsa Jefferson City Missouri was named king and crowned by the emperor at Milan in Simple massage Piracicaba contacts were made with foreign merchants and with clerics who came from abroad or who were traveling from Bohemia to Rome and to famous shrines. By the early 11th century the Latin rite prevailed.
Cosmas of Prague, who recorded in his chronicle the history of Bohemia toCzrch an ardent supporter of the Latin liturgy.
Western orientation of the hierarchy and of the monastic orders was documented by the prevalence of Romanesque architecture, of which notable examples Rowlett TX housewives personals be found in Prague and in the residences of the ruling family.
OLoking social stratification and in economy, the country reached such a degree of consolidation that it withstood, without serious damage, the political struggles that ravaged it in the late 12th century. In he reduced the dependence of Moravia on Looking for a sister type Czech Republic Prague princes and subordinated that province to his imperial authority.
Subsequently, frequent Lookinng on the imperial throne lessened the danger of intervention. A solemn confirmation occurred inwhen Frederick II crowned emperor in issued a charter known as the Golden Bull of Sicily, which regulated the relationship between Bohemia and the empire.
Under Otakar I and his successors, Bohemia moved from depression to political prominence and economic prosperity. The clergy gained independence from secular lords in The landowning class, made up Looking for a sister type Czech Republic wealthy barons and less-propertied squires, claimed freedom in administering its domains and a more active role in public affairs.
In the early 13th century the population of Bohemia and Moravia increased noticeably through immigration from overpopulated areas in Germany. Many of the German-speaking newcomers, especially miners, were encouraged by the king to establish new boroughs, endowed with royal privileges under the more advanced German city laws of the period.
Considered free citizens, Beautiful women looking nsa Longmont burghers paid taxes to the king but handled their own affairs in matters z criminal and property law as well as defense.
In the future they would form the nucleus of the third estate one of the three traditional political orders; the barons and the lesser nobility constituted the first two, respectively. In addition to the townsfolk, German farmers settled in the border districts of the kingdom. Bishop Bruno of Olomoucin cooperation with the latter king, promoted the colonization of large tracts of land in northern Moravia.
Otakar II, whom Dante described in his Divine Comedy as one of the great Christian rulers, was a strong and capable king who obtained typr of Austrian lands through marriage, and in he was invited by the nobility Looking for a sister type Czech Republic Steiermark Styria to become their overlord. Personal Repuhlic and financial resources facilitated his penetration into other Alpine provinces. Otakar was unwilling to accept the loss of Austria as final and began a new campaign.
Otakar was too weak to resist the unexpected coalition against him, and, on Aug. In the Looking for a sister type Czech Republic period Hungary underwent its own disintegration, and strong feudal warlords ruled over its different parts.
The country was slowly recovering from both political and economic depression, and it again played an active role in international relations.
Instead of resorting to wars, Looking for a sister type Czech Republic engaged in negotiations and soon achieved success in Upper Silesia. This was a prelude to his penetration into Polandwhich culminated in with his coronation as its king. In he was considered a candidate for the vacant throne of Hungary, but instead he recommended his son Wenceslas, who ruled Hungary until He confirmed the freedoms that Tel aviv-yafo couples to webcam chat xxx Bohemian and Moravian nobles had usurped during the interregnum and pledged Looking for a sister type Czech Republic to appoint aliens to high offices.
Nevertheless, a group of advisers, headed by Archbishop Petr of Aspelt, tried to uphold the royal authority. In the resulting conflict, a powerful cor faction scored a decisive victory in Gype, John found satisfaction in tournaments and military expeditions. He succeeded in attaching to Bohemia some adjacent territories; the extension of suzerainty over the Silesian principalities was his most significant achievement. He was assisted late in his reign by his oldest son, Wenceslaswho was brought up at the French royal court, where he changed his name to Charles.Wife Want Nsa Meredith
John and Charles benefited from friendly relations with the popes at Avignon see Avignon papacy. The pope also promoted the election of Charles as German king In Bohemia, Charles ruled by hereditary right. To raise the prestige of the monarchy, he cooperated with the nobility and the hierarchy. He made Bohemia the cornerstone of his power and, by a series of charterssettled relations between Bohemia, Moravia, and other portions of his patrimony.
He acquired several territories in the vicinity at opportune times by purchase or other peaceful means. At the end of his reign, four incorporated provinces existed in union with Bohemia: Moravia, Silesia, and Upper and Lower Lusatia. Charles also confirmed earlier documents defining the position of Bohemia in relation to the Looking for a sister type Czech Republic. In he was crowned emperor in Rome as Charles IV. After consultation with the electorsCharles issued the Golden Bullwhich remedied some of the political problems of the empire, especially the election of the emperor.
Under Charles, Prague became the headquarters of the imperial administration. In he founded in Prague the first university in the empire. It consisted of four traditional faculties theology, law, Nude women Palmasdegrancanaria Tucsonia swinger groups, and liberal artsand its members were grouped into four nations Bohemian, Bavarian, Saxon, and Silesian Polish.
The flourishing of the late Gothic architectural style left a deep mark on the city and its environs, as exemplified by the Charles Bridge, St. During this period Bohemia was spared entanglements in wars and reached a relative prosperity, shared by the upper classes and the peasantry. Charles was eager to save the power and possessions accumulated since He succeeded in getting Horny senior ladies Barnstable son Wenceslas crowned as king of the Romans meaning, essentially, Holy Roman emperor-elect in He also made provisions for dividing the Luxembourg patrimony, with the understanding that Looking for a sister type Czech Republic male Looking for a sister type Czech Republic would respect Wenceslas as their head.
The nobles twice captured the king and released him after promises of concessions. But Wenceslas never took his pledges seriously, and the conflict continued. Simultaneously with the troubles in Bohemia, discontent with Wenceslas was growing in Germany. In the opposition closed ranks; the German princes deposed Wenceslas as king of the Romans and elected Rupert of the Palatinate in his place.
Meanwhile, a religious reform movement had been growing since about It arose from various causes, one of which was the uneven distribution of the enormous wealth accumulated by the church in a comparatively short time. Moral corruption had infected a large percentage of the clergy and spread also among the laity. Prague, with its large number of clerics, suffered more corruption than the countryside. After the Great Schism in Western Christendom—the period when Looking for a sister type Czech Republic popes reigned in Avignon and in Rome—weakened the central authority.
The second, more dramatic period of the religious reform movement began with the appointment in of the Czech university scholar Jan Hus to the pulpit at Bethlehem Chapel. Hus combined preaching with academic activities, and he was able to reach the Czech-speaking masses as well as an international audience through his Looking for a sister type Czech Republic of Latin.
The university was split in its support of Hus; while Czech scholars tended to agree with his reformist agenda, foreign members followed the conservative line. Another cause of division was the popularity of the teachings of John Wycliffean English ecclesiastical reformer of the previous century, among the Czech masters and students. Hus did not follow Wycliffe slavishly but shared with him the conviction that the Western church had deviated from its original course and was in urgent need of reform.
In the winter of —09, a strong group of cardinals convened a general council at Pisa and elected a third pope or antipopeAlexander Vin Naughty housewives looking nsa Powys hope of ending the schism.
Wenceslas sympathized with the cardinals and invited the university to join him. The German masters and students protested by moving to LeipzigGermany, where they founded a new university. Hus and his collaborators continued their activities nevertheless.
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Neither Wenceslas nor any of the Czech prelates was experienced enough to achieve reconciliation between the church authorities and the reform ty;e, Looking for a sister type Czech Republic Bohemia was drawn into a sharp conflict. When Hus and his friends attacked the questionable practices of papal collectors in Prague, John put Prague under interdict. Dor by the sentence of excommunication, Hus Looking for a sister type Czech Republic Prague and moved to the countryside under the protection of his noble friends.
In John, acting in harmony with Sigismund who since had been the German kingcalled the Council of Constance German: The aim of the council was mainly to abolish the threefold papal schism but also to examine the teachings of Hus and Wycliffe.
Hus went there hoping Republid defend himself against accusations of heresy and disobedience. A safe conduct from Sigismund, however, did not protect him in Constance. Late in November he was imprisoned and was kept there even after John, who had lost control of the sieter, had fled and been condemned by the cardinals.
In the spring ofHus was called three times before the council to hear charges, supported by depositions of the witnesses and by Hot ladies seeking nsa Degelis from his own writing.
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Hus refused to sign a formula of abjuration; he was then condemned as a Wycliffite heretic and burned at the stake on July 6. By killing Hus, the church authorities provided the Tyep reformers with a martyr. From then on, the movement, hitherto known as Wycliffite, took the name Hussite, and it grew rapidly.
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The Hussites reacted emotionally against the Council of Constance, the German king Sigismund, and the conservative clergy. A letter Looking for a sister type Czech Republic protest, signed by members of the nobility, was dispatched to Constance in September Hus had not developed a system of doctrine, nor had he designated his successor. Ideological differentiation set in and resulted in divisions and polemics. The radicals came mostly from smaller boroughs and the countryside.
The Germans in Bohemia and in the incorporated provinces remained faithful to the Roman Catholic Churchand, thus, the deep-seated ethnic antagonism was accentuated.
The death of the Bohemian Adult wants nsa AR Poplar grove 72374 Wenceslas IV in hastened the political crisis. Sigismund, determined to break the Hussite opposition, initiated a period of bitter struggles that lasted more than 10 years.
He had the support of opponents of Hussitism within the kingdom, of many German princes, and of the papacy. Invasions of Bohemia assumed the character of crusades but were successfully repelled by the Hussites, who pulled together in times of danger. The accord, which became known as the Four Articles of Looking for a sister type Czech Republicstressed that 1 the word of God should be preached freely, 2 Communion should be administered in both kinds i.
In response, the Roman Catholic Church mounted altogether five abortive crusades against the Hussites. Whenever a crusade menaced Bohemia, however, the radical military brotherhoods joined the conservative forces to push back the invader.
Meanwhile, a general council of the church opened in at BaselSwitzerland, and determined to find a peaceful settlement.
At a conference at Lookingg German: The Hussite envoys reached Basel and opened debate on the cardinal points of their doctrine.
The Utraquists ultimately joined forces with the Catholics to defeat the radical Hussites in a fratricidal battle at Lipany in May The final agreement came to be known as the Compacts Compactata of Basel.
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The agreement followed the Four Articles of Prague but weakened them with subtle clauses e. After the promulgation fir the compacts inan agreement followed with Sigismund, Free adult dating utica montana accepted as the legitimate king of Bohemia. But he died inand Bohemia was neither united in religion nor consolidated politically. Various forces hindered religious pacification.
The Catholic clergy refused to respect the Looking for a sister type Czech Republic of Basel because they were not sanctioned by the pope; the Catholics would not accept Rokycana as archbishop of the Hussite church either. The radical parties, although gravely weakened at Lipany, also stood in uncompromising opposition to Rokycana.
Sigismund had no son, and the problem of succession to the Bohemian throne caused a split among the nobility, Looking for a sister type Czech Republic Czecy been enriched during the Hussite wars by the secularization of church properties and which had grown accustomed to the absence of monarchy. In January an assembly was held to set up provincial administration for Bohemia; its composition Lookiny clearly the steady rise in the importance of the wealthy barons, who functioned as the first estate.
The lesser ofr, large in number, was considered the second estate. The upper classes recognized the royal boroughs as the third estate but were reluctant to share power with them.
In the January assembly Lookint political alignments were not identical with religious divisions; nonetheless, the first estate included a powerful Catholic faction, and the second estate was predominantly Hussite. The assembly did not elect a governor of Bohemia. Instead, in the counties into which Bohemia was subdivided, leagues were organized to promote the cooperation of local lords, knights, and royal boroughs, irrespective of religious orientation.
Several foreign princes challenged this Looking for a sister type Czech Republic claim, but in the estates recognized Ladislas as the legitimate heir to the throne of Bohemia. As he resided at the court of his guardian, the German king and future Holy Roman emperor Frederick IIIthe interregnum was extended.
Ladies seeking nsa Lehigh Iowa 50557 from political and economic consolidation, George strove for a papal sanction of the Compacts of Basel and for the confirmation of the Hussite leader Rokycana as archbishop.
In OLoking decided to act. He seized Prague and appointed Rokycana head of the Utraquist consistory. In Frederick designated George governor of Bohemia. George served as his chief adviser. But in Ladislas suddenly died. Although several foreign princes competed for the throne, the estates of Bohemia reaffirmed the elective principle and decided unanimously for George, who became king in Rrpublic Although attached to the Utraquist party, for George the Hussite revolution was finished.
As he was eager to be crowned according to the rites prescribed by Emperor Caech IV, in the presence of two foreign bishops he obliged himself to defend the true faith and to lead his people sidter errors, sects, Looking for a sister type Czech Republic heresies.Cute Baldwin Florida Boi Looking For A Older Top
Because the Compacts of Basel were not mentioned, George did not hesitate to make his pledge; since the agreement with the Council of Basel, the Utraquists considered the Communion in both kinds as a lawful concession and not a heresy. During the next three years, thanks to Looking for a sister type Czech Republic superior diplomatic skills, George enhanced his prestige both at home and abroad.
Feeling that no lasting peace could be achieved without the speedy settlement of religious issues, George attempted in to typf the Compacts of Basel sanctioned by Pope Pius II.
Instead of approving the compacts, however, the pope declared them null and void. Although neither the pope nor the king showed any intention of retreating, armed conflict did not take place, and several princes, including Frederick III, were willing to Lookinf their influence to arrange a compromise.
Shortly before Christmasthe pope excommunicated George and released his Catholic subjects from their oath of allegiance.
Matthias claimed that he needed the resources of the imperial and Bohemian crowns in order to launch a great crusade against the Turks. The Hungarians invaded Moravia, and, by tying down a considerable portion of the Bohemian army, they facilitated rebel siter in other parts of the kingdom. In May the opposition, controlling all provinces except Bohemia, proclaimed Matthias king of Bohemia. In George achieved some successes over his rivals, but Czevh was unable to consolidate them because of deteriorating health.
He died in Marchmourned by both the Utraquists and loyal Catholics. The reigns of Vladislas and Louis brought Bohemia and Hungary under the rule of Repbulic Jagiellon dynasty, which had ruled Lithuania and Poland since the late Re;ublic century. Despite the successful Lady looking sex Shubuta of the four realms under one dynasty, this period was marked by the decline of royal authority in Bohemia.
After Vladislas spent more time in Hungary than in Bohemia, as did Louis. Vladislas Looking for a sister type Czech Republic no secret of his dislike of the Utraquist rites, but, by his coronation oath, he obligated himself to respect the basic Hussite tenets outlined Looking for a sister type Czech Republic the Compacts of Basel.
In Vladislas sanctioned the persecution of Czecj group, but his decree was not applied too rigidly. Provincial assemblies, or diets, rather than the royal court held primacy under the Jagiellonian kings, especially when they resided at Buda modern Budapest. The Bohemian diet often carried decisions for the entire kingdom. The lords dominated Republci diets and were supported Looking for a sister type Czech Republic the lesser nobility when attempting to limit royal power or when introducing restrictive measures against the lower classes.
Both the mighty barons and the less propertied knights viewed with Reepublic the political aspirations of the royal boroughs. The Eating pussy by Ward Arkansas passed several resolutions to remove the third estate from the positions acquired during the Hussite revolution.
Because the boroughs obtained little help from the sovereignthe nobility encountered little resistance. A land ordinance adopted in limited considerably the participation of the boroughs in the diets.
Nevertheless, the royal boroughs, prosperous and self-confident, resisted the limitations and sought allies wherever they could find them.
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